USK Conferences, Roundtable for Indonesian Entrepreneurship Educators 2018

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The Antecedents of Student’s Entrepreneurial Intention in Collectivist Culture
Eko Suhartanto

Last modified: 2018-09-01


Principal Topics

A deeper understanding of the entrepreneurial intention antecedents is important to produce a better entrepreneurship education program (EEP) (De Jorge-Moreno, Laborda Castillo, & Sanz Triguero, 2012; Fayolle & Gailly, 2015; Sánchez, 2013; Zhang, Duysters, & Cloodt, 2014). Believing that intention is the best predictor of behaviour, most entrepreneurship education scholars rely on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) and Theory of Entrepreneurial Events (Shapero & Sokol, 1982) to exercise the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (EI). Most empirical research that was held in the western individualist culture demonstrated entrepreneurial attitude (EA) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) was more relevant than perceived subjective norms (SN) to explain the EI (Liñán, Rodríguez-Cohard, & Rueda-Cantuche, 2011). However, perception is not independent of cultural factors (Shapero & Sokol, 1982), therefore, cultural context should involve in the research (Lee, Chang, & Lim, 2005).

Following Fayolle et al.'s (2006) framework, this study applied Ajzen's (1991) theory to investigate the relationships of student’s EA, SN, and PBC with EI in the eastern collectivist culture. Individuals living in a high collectivist environment have strong feelings as a member of a group, therefore, they very much consider in-group members’ opinions (Hofstede, 2011). Consequently, perceived social norms about entrepreneurial behaviours (SN) may be most relevant to EI in a collectivist society. Thus, compared to EA and PBC, we hypothesized that SN has the strongest relationship with EI.



Surveying the individuals as the unit of analysis, this cross-sectional research used 819 students of S1 Bisnis Prasetiya Mulya University, who are studying in the first, second, and third grade, as the respondents. We translated Fayolle et al.'s (2006) instrument to assess EA, SN, PBC, and EI. We used SPSS to validate the instrument and AMOS to run our structural equation model (SEM). To overcome non-normal data issues, we used the ADF estimation technique. To anticipate the potential impacts of respondents’ characteristics, we controlled respondents’ gender (Westhead & Solesvik, 2015) and grade (Fayolle & Gailly, 2015).


Results and Implications

Contradict to most empirical results of entrepreneurship education, this study produced an insignificant relationship between EA and EI. Supporting our hypothesis, SN has a highest positive relationship with EI (β=0.536, p≤.001), while PBC has also a positive relationship with EI (β=0.160, p≤.001). Further, EI has a significant relationship with student’s gender (β=-0.152, p≤.05), but not with student’s grade.

These results indicate that the students, who are living in a collectivist culture, take more consideration to the other’s opinions than their perceived ability to perform or not into entrepreneurial activities. This result is in line with previous findings, stating that in collectivist culture people are less likely to take decision individually. Instead, social pressure matters in their decision making (Hofstede, 1984).

Further, future research should empirically exercise the effect of gender on the relationship between EI and its antecedents. The results of the interaction effect of culture and gender should be considered in the entrepreneurship education program (EEP) design.


Entrepreneurship Education, Collectivist, Entrepreneurial Intention, Subjective Norms

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